## Limitations of Classical Physics

There is a wealth of observable effects in the quantum world which

cannot be understood in the framework of classical mechanics or classical

electrodynamics. Instead of listing them all one by one I choose

two characteristic examples that show very clearly that the description

within classical physics is incomplete and must be supplemented by

some new, fundamental principles. These are: the quantization of atomic

bound states which does not follow from the Kepler problem for an

electron in the field of a positive point charge, and the electromagnetic

radiation emitted by an electron bound in an atom which, in a purely

classical framework, would render atomic quantum states unstable.

When we talk about “classical” here and in the sequel, we mean every

domain of physics where Planck’s constant does not play a quantitative

role and, therefore, can be neglected to a very good approximation.

cannot be understood in the framework of classical mechanics or classical

electrodynamics. Instead of listing them all one by one I choose

two characteristic examples that show very clearly that the description

within classical physics is incomplete and must be supplemented by

some new, fundamental principles. These are: the quantization of atomic

bound states which does not follow from the Kepler problem for an

electron in the field of a positive point charge, and the electromagnetic

radiation emitted by an electron bound in an atom which, in a purely

classical framework, would render atomic quantum states unstable.

When we talk about “classical” here and in the sequel, we mean every

domain of physics where Planck’s constant does not play a quantitative

role and, therefore, can be neglected to a very good approximation.

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